End and by-products from livestock manure processing

End and byproducts from processing of livestock manure are divided into 11 groups on basis of the processing technology used and their chemical composition.


Group of end and by-product (select):

Livestock manure solids, typically with a dry matter content of around 25% and rich in phosphorus and nitrogen.


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 NameDM ≥DM <N ≥N <NH4-N ≥NH4-N <P ≥P <K ≥K <C org ≥C org <VS ≥VS <Susp. mat. ≥Susp. mat. <BOD ≥BOD <COD ≥COD <Mg ≥Mg <Ca ≥Ca <Na ≥Na <Cd ≥Cd <Cu ≥Cu <Zn ≥Zn <Hg ≥Hg <Pb ≥Pb <Cr ≥Cr <Ni ≥Ni <Price pr. ton (€)Reference 
Solid fraction from a mechanical separator28,3 11,80 5,40 6,90 3,90   212,30       4,80 8,10 0,80   93,90 282,60          114
Solid fraction19,0 5,10   1,40     15,10                            11
Fibre fraction36,0 11,60 4,00 7,00 2,00                                10
Solid Fraction (20% inflow)20,0 2,20   3,50 5,80   15,00                            9
Fibre fraction22,032,03,805,102,003,001,302,902,00                                8
Bioenergie-Region Südoldenburg pig slurry solid fraction27,934,38,208,503,003,202,603,403,203,40  250,00420,00      1,492,164,254,31    24,7028,2077,3096,00         7
Fibre fraction25,0 4,50 2,00 1,20 2,00                                6
Fibre fraction20,030,0  2,806,90  1,503,72  178,00276,00              10,0042,0020,00231,00         5
Solid fraction pig manure28,8                                        4
Solid fraction16,0 6,50   6,30     13,20                            3
Fibre fraction36,0 11,80 5,60 13,00 2,30                                2
Bioenergie-Region Südoldenburg pig slurry solid fraction27,528,09,8010,103,003,306,90 3,20   190,00       4,80 4,10     14,10 115,80          1
 Average:25,5431,087,537,903,484,105,013,152,883,56  124,80348,00      3,702,165,484,310,80   35,6835,10123,93163,50         15,00 

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The signs '≥' means the parameter value is like ('=') or larger ('>') in case there is also indicated a less-than value ('<').

Used units are:

  • % for dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS) and suspended matter
  • kg per ton for macro elements (N, NH4-N, P, K, organic C, Mg, Ca and Na)
  • gram per ton for trace elements (Cu, Zn, Hg, Pb, Cr and Ni)

Volatile solids (VS) is only a relevant parameter for solid fractions. Biologic oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and suspended matter only relevant for liquid fractions.

The shown values are to be considered as examples, alone, that illustrates the chemical composition for relevant parametres, and as well the variation in the composition. The references must be consulted in each case in order to clarify for instance the analysis method and the exact technologies that were used to produced the end or by-product.


Where no other references are made, the source for the CO2 reduction coefficient (CO2e reduc. ton pr ton VS) is: Sven G. Sommer, Henrik B. Møller og Søren O. Pedersen. 2001. Reduktion af drivhusgasemission fra gylle og organisk affald ved biogasbehandling (In English: Reduction of green house gas emission from slurry and organic wastes by biogas treatment). Report No. 31 - Animal Production, from DJF (In English: Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences). 53 pp., Appendix 3, Biogas scenario 2, without subsstitution efffect.

Other references are incicated by: 'Reference number: Reference; Comment'

  • 114: Gerard Velthof, Alterra Wageningen UR. (2009) Report: Kunstmestvervangers onderzocht . Tussentijds rapport van het onderzoek in het kader van de pilot Mineralenconcentraten; -
  • 11: Rico. C.. García. H.. Rico. J.L. (2011). Physical–anaerobic–chemical process for treatment of dairy cattle manure. Bioresour. Technol. 102. 2143-2150.; These values of solids and nutrients concentration have been obtained at lab scale through a coagulation-flocculation separation process of dairy cattle manure.
  • 10: Birkmose.T. (2010): Status over anvendelsen af gylleseparering i Danmark. maj 2010 . Danish Agricultural Advisory Service. Aarhus. Denmark.; The number of installations and treated amounts includes various types of mechanical separation (such as centrifuge. screw pressing. and band filer separation) following the flocculation. and we have not been able to divide these technologies.
  • 9: Report authored by F. E. de Buisonjé and R.W. Melse Wageningen UR Livestock Research; Input type: Codigested cattle slurry. Pig slurry and Cattle slurry
  • 8: -; Birkmose.T. (2010):
  • 7: Brauckmann University of Osnabrueck; Data from test in July 2011. For details see www.bioenergie-suedoldenburg.de. Avarage and max. In practice of screw precces are mainly used with cattle slurre. There are no data aviable
  • 6: Birkmose.T. (2010): Status over anvendelsen af gylleseparering i Danmark. maj 2010 . Danish Agricultural Advisory Service. Aarhus. Denmark.; -
  • 5: E-mail/Oral Communication (Luis Ferreira); (Oral comunication with L.Ferreira)
  • 4: vcm inquiry (2010). VITO BBT study manure processing (2007); Only the nitrification-denitrification facilities that separate pig or cattle manure as a first step are counted here; in addition: 6 anaerobic digestors use separation by centrifuge for post-treatment of their digestate. We can not distinguish between different separation technologies. therefore they are all counted as centrifuge (= most often used technique).
  • 3: Unpublished data; There is only a decanter centrifuge for the separation of manure in Cantabria. It is a Pieralisi Baby2. installed in the pilot plant for I+D+i purposes. The centrifuge receives the liquid fraction of dairy manure separated by screw
  • 2: -; Some of these centrifuge installations use coagulation/flocculation as pretreatment - however we do not know how many!
  • 1: Brauckmann University of Osnabrueck; data from test in july 2011 GEA and Spallek. Further informations on www.bioenergie-suedoldenburg.de In practice the Spallek centrifuge is used.