Livestock manure

Livestock manure is organic material consisting primarily of a more or less homogenous mix of faeces and urine from livestock, including bedding material, and secondarily of other material that would be discarded as waste from a livestock production such as fodder residues, silage effluents, and process water. Livestock manure might also be more or less diluted with rain water during storage.


Group of livestock manures (select):

Solid part of source separated livestock manure. Sub-group of livestock manure. Normally having a dry matter content of 20-30 %, and removed from the livestock stables on a daily basis, and placed in a manure pad with drains to collect effluents and rain water. The stables are designed with drains in the solid floors, enabling to collect liquid fractions such as urine, silage effluents, process water and alike, in separate stores, and vice versa with the solid fractions.


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 Animal typeFeed intensityHousing systemBedding typeAmountUnit for the amountDry matter (DM) content, %Total nitrogen (N), kg per tonNH4-N, kg per tonTotal phosphorus (calculated as pure P) , kg per tonPotassium (calculated as pure K) , kg per tonOrganic matter, % of DMMagnesium (Mg), kg per tonCalcium (Ca), kg per tonSodium (Na), kg per tonCupper (Cu), gram per tonZinc (Zn), gram per tonVS % DM (Volitile Solids)m3 CH4 Pr Ton VSCO2e reduc. ton pr ton VSPrice pr. ton (€)Reference 
             0,02     0,96 124
       7,26 1,593,17        0,96 145
       6,00 4,505,00        0,96 152
      23,0            0,96 164
      27,0            0,96 171
      22,67,00 2,382,70        0,96 179
      23,06,20 2,504,20        0,96 183
      23,07,501,503,932,91        0,96 185
      23,011,093,885,088,88        0,96 193
      29,710,603,713,708,2280,01,755,571,71    0,96 224
pigs    Per 1 ton             0,96 252
Average:       24,477,953,033,385,0180,001,752,801,71    0,96 179,27 Average:

The signs '≥' means the parameter value is like ('=') or larger ('>') in case there is also indicated a less-than value ('<').

Used units are:

  • % for dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS) and suspended matter
  • kg per ton for macro elements (N, NH4-N, P, K, organic C, Mg, Ca and Na)
  • gram per ton for trace elements (Cu, Zn, Hg, Pb, Cr and Ni)

Volatile solids (VS) is only a relevant parameter for solid fractions. Biologic oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and suspended matter only relevant for liquid fractions.

The shown values are to be considered as examples, alone, that illustrates the chemical composition for relevant parametres, and as well the variation in the composition. The references must be consulted in each case in order to clarify for instance the analysis method and the exact technologies that were used to produced the end or by-product.


Where no other references are made, the source for the CO2 reduction coefficient (CO2e reduc. ton pr ton VS) is: Sven G. Sommer, Henrik B. Møller og Søren O. Pedersen. 2001. Reduktion af drivhusgasemission fra gylle og organisk affald ved biogasbehandling (In English: Reduction of green house gas emission from slurry and organic wastes by biogas treatment). Report No. 31 - Animal Production, from DJF (In English: Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences). 53 pp., Appendix 3, Biogas scenario 2, without subsstitution efffect.

Other references are incicated by: 'Reference number: Reference; Comment'

  • 124: -; -
  • 145: Institute of Environmental Engineering. Tallinn University of Technology; -
  • 152: CODIGO GALEGO DE BOAS PRACTICAS AGRARIAS; Total Phosphorous basen on P2O5 Total Potassium based on K2O Poultry: hens and ducks
  • 164: -; -
  • 179: Figures are from a draft amended version of a Ministry Order No. 20 of 2 February 2005; -
  • 183: Annex 2 of MoA Decree No. 274/1998 Coll. on storage and use of fertilizers; -
  • 185: Commisie bemesting grasland en voedergewassen. 2008; The solid manures are produced as such in specific housing systems. The solid cattle manure is produced in oldfashioned stables with straw. Poultry manures are drier because no urine is produced and Often manure drying in the stable is practiced. Chicken slurry is a rare item these days. Solid pig manure is a rare phenomenon.
  • 193: The default livestock manure figures are inspired by Hanne Damgaard Poulsen (ed.): Normtal for husdyrgødning – 2010. 33 pages.; -
  • 224: VLM-Mestbank; Note on the Flemish figures in the document ”Information about livestock manure qualities before a possible treatment! – Belgium” General remarks: The Flemish default figures are base on analyses from ca 1996. The figures given are the most recent averages. based on all available manure analyses results of the laboratories acknowledged by the Flemish government in the period 2006 – 2009. Since the default figures are quite old. it seems better to use the more recent figures. The default figures are given as well. because they might be useful in your discussion with Frederic Accoe The administration has not enough information to make the distinction between results from solid livestock manure and deep litter. therefore the results in the sections for solid manure are a mix of both. The largest part will be solid manure. Since 28/02/2011 in Flanders a manure analysis is only legally valid if the sample is taken by a laboratory acknowledged by the Flemish government. In the periode 2006 - 2009 the analysis had to be done by an acknowledged lab. but the sample could be taken by anyone. Therefore one can only hope the sample are a bit representative. Whether or not the Flemish figures are representative for the whole of Belgium has not been investigated. Remarks on the figures per category. Special attention for the liquid pig manure: the recent figures are based on only 13 samples from 1993 – 2007. This is not a sufficient number to deduct a representative average. You find both the figures from the study as well as the current default figures in the excel file. Unfortunately no amounts of samples are known for the default figures. For the pig slurry a weighted average was calculated based on the amount of samples. I cannot immediately check whether or not these proportions are representative for the Flemish pig-stock. Since there is no information on the amount of samples for both groups. a weighted average value cannot be calculated. For poultry it is difficult to split the Flemish classification into slurry and deep litter. Therefore the default figures are given in the excel file. All available information was translated as well as possible. but due to the specific jargon. it was not easy (and maybe not completely correct.
  • 252: -; -